Човешкият мозък оперира с множествено  посредници, които определят психичните състояния и тези молекули се наричат невромедиатори. Всички сме чували за серотонина и действието му върху настроението, съня, апетита и т.н. А знаем ли нещо за допамина и ролята му в нашия организъм?

Допаминът е молекула, която стои зад нашите мечти и най-големите тайни. Допаминът означава похот, любов, изневяра, мотивация, внимание, женственост, учене и пристрастеност. Допаминът е усещане за удоволствие и хедонизъм /изпитване и стремеж към наслада/. И ако преди се смяташе, че допаминът се покачва при изпитване на удоволствие вече се твърди, че той е свързан с очакването за удоволствие, следователно с мотивацията. Хранене и сексуален контакт са стимуланти за освобождаването на допамин в мозъка. Ето защо тези дейности са приятни и хората непрекъснато се занимават с тях.

В средата на 60-те години възникна предположението, че опиатните наркотици (опиум, хероин, морфин) имитират действията на вещества, които се срещат в мозъка и така бяха открити ендорфините и енкефлините. Днес думата "ендорфин" се използва, за да се опишат и двете групи. В началото ендорфините са идентифицирани като болкоуспокояващи субстанции, но после се доказа, че имат отношение и към преживяването на удоволствие и възнаграждение. В най-голямо количество ендорфини се отделят по време на много силна болка и силен стрес. Удоволствието от силният стрес се дължи не толкова на адреналина, колкото на ендорфините. Адреналина като периферен медиатор /защото той се отделя не само в мозъка/, мобилизира организма за оцеляване, но удоволствието идва от опиатните субстанции в организма или ендорфините, които се отделят, защото сме много застрашени. При много силна травма, например счупване на крайник в началото не усещаме болка, което се дължи на ендорфините, който се отделят при тази силна травма, за да ни запазят да оцелеем от шока и после, ако травмата не ни е убила, нивото им спада и започва да боли, пак за да ни съхрани, като ни ограничи ограничи движенията. Когата е застрашен животът ни се отделят ендорфини в големи количества и това е свързано с преживяване за удоволствие, което означава, че смъртта носи удоволствие! Ето как Достоевски описва епилептичен припадък(това на практика е смърт, макар и за няколко секунди): „Всеки припадък се предшества от неизразимо чувство на удоволствие. За миг изпитвам такова щастие, което е невъзможно при обикновени условия и за което другите хора нямат представа. Чувствам се в пълна хармония със себе си и със света и това усещане е толкова силно и сладко, че за тези няколко секунди на такова блаженство, че човек би дал десет години от живота си, а може би целия живот.“ И да добавим, че задоволяването на всички биологични потребности се свързва с отделянето на ендорфини. Е как да се лишим от такива удоволствия като хранене и секс.

И така, каква е връзката между допамин и ендорфини, защо два медиатора за едно и също нещо? Допамин е за „ЖЕЛАНИЕ“, а ендорфините за „УДОВОЛСТВИЕ“!

Високите концентрации на ендорфини в мозъка предизвикват чувство за еуфория, повишават удоволствието и потискат болката както физическата, така и емоционалната. Ниските нива на ендорфина ни карат да чувстваме глад за мазнини и особено за шоколад и люти чушки. Всъщност, се счита, че характерното повишаване на нивата на ендорфини, причинено от шоколада го превръща в комфортна храна по време на стрес. Лютият пипер е бил използвани в различни видове лечения, и най-вече при хронична болка и освен това е смятан за афродизиак. Най-общо казано секреция на ендорфини се предизвиква при хранене. Съвременното общество предлага достъпни и евтини кулинарни изкушения и това се отразява на нормалния прием на храна. Хомеостатичния глад /глад при лишаване от храна/ се заменя от хедонистичния глад, който се регулира от вкусните и възнаграждаващи свойства на храната и се смята, че играе ключова роля в разпространението на затлъстяването. Ако свържем прехранването с начин за повлияване на тревоно-депресивни преживявания, с времето тези преживявания преминават, но остава хедонистичния глад, които ни прови зависими и дебели. За сравнение, ако облекчаваме тревожността си с алкохол, стресовата ситуация ще премине, но алкохолизмът, може да ни остане като проблем.

 

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jimdofreeFub

25.09.2021 | 07:26

We spent a lot of time at her home. Maybe so her mother could keep an eye on us. Mrs. Spencer made sure to be around, offering drinks, snacks, chit chat. I noticed that she was fairly young herself. Granted at my age, anyone over 25 was old, but she was probably mid-30s, divorced. If she was a indiction of how Carley would develop, maybe I should wait. Mrs. Spencer had fuller breasts and a nice butt. She appeared to be in great shape for her "advanced" age. I knew she was keeping an eye on me as much as I was on her and her younger daughter. Her eldest, Sharon was away at college at the time. With Mrs. Spencer around we mostly limited ourselves to holding hands and sneaking in a few light kisses. One day Mrs. Spencer caught us by surprise walking in as I'd slid my hand up from Carley's stomach to rub her right breast through her shirt. She didn't really need a bra yet, so I could feel her nipple, hard, through her shirt. Just this much contact had me hard also. https://sites.google.com/view/jP26R5Q6l1bEvm6o https://sites.google.com/view/erOovFwVauSh19fk

Attemyvat

06.09.2021 | 07:22

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